Nanowire battery is a technology that uses nanowire in order to increase the surface area of its electrodes. Nanowires are structures whose diameter ranges in tens of nanometers or less. Nanowires can offer good strain relaxation and better interface control, thus providing an enhanced lifecycle. These wires have the special ability to expand four times their original size when charged without fracturing. In comparison to conventional battery, the graphite anode is replaced with these nanowires to improve the battery performance. Lithium ion is a nanowire battery, which uses stainless steel anode covered by silicon nanowires. Lithium is stored in small silicon nanowires which have the diameter of 0.001 smaller than that of a sheet of paper. Germanium anodes can also be used to replace graphite anodes.
Electronic devices such as laptops, smartphones, and other gadgets with nanowire batteries last for longer duration than conventional batteries. This is one of the primary advantages of nanowire battery. Nanowire batteries produce 10 times more electricity than current batteries and also get charged faster. Nanowires are also used in solar cell, because it helps absorb & retain more sunlight creating resonance effect which increases the efficiency of solar cells. The research activities are being carried out, with regards to retention of sunlight to optimize the efficiency of solar cells. This is expected to boost the market for nanowire batteries. Nanowire batteries are likely to transform the electronics market in the next few years owing to their distinctive characteristics of faster charging and longer durability.
Nanowire batteries with stainless steel or germanium anodes face a disadvantage of undergoing expansion when charged. They are also likely to get disintegrated after certain number of cycles of use. Nanowire batteries are susceptible to the edge effect. The conductivity of the battery can be affected if the bonding between the neighboring atoms on the surface of the nanowire is weak. This is called the edge effect. This is projected to be one of the restraints of the nanowire battery market. Considering the numerous advantages that nanowire batteries provide, researchers all over the world are striving to solve the minor disadvantages associated with them by coating nanowires with a certain type of a gel.
Based on end-use application, the nanowire battery market can be segmented into consumer electronics devices, healthcare, automotive, energy storage, power generation, and others. Solar cells and solar energy devices is one of the important industrial applications of the nanowire battery. Nanowire batteries can be used in various applications in the electronics field such as smart cards, power remote sensors, display screens, and flexible electronics. Nanowire batteries can also be employed in biomedical implant devices, where the battery needs to be charged while remaining implanted. Nanowires are also used largely in electric vehicles.
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Research is being carried out to use light-absorbing nanowires embedded in a flexible polymer film to produce low-cost flexible solar panels. These solar panels can be employed in household applications. Researchers have developed improved nano generators with power sensors based on nanowires. These are self-powered sensing devices, which are able to generate the power within the range of nanometers.
Based on geography, the nanowire battery market can be divided into Asia Pacific, Europe, North America, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America accounts for the major share of the nanowire battery market due to the increasing significance of nanotechnology and the rising need to conserve energy. Led by the expansion of manufacturing industries in China and Japan, Asia Pacific also contributes to significant share of the nanowire battery market.